Do livro do KKE: Assuntos teóricos a respeito do programa do KKE



Do Capítulo: “The formation of the strategy of the communist movement and the struggle against opportunism”

Excerto sobre a dissolução da Internacional Comunista em 1943:

«During this period opportunism was expressed also within the lines of the CP of USSR in the form of Trotskyism and Bukharinism. Both basic “oppositional” trends that developed during the decades of 1920 and 1930 within the RCP (b), absolutized (jointly) the elements of backwardness in soviet society and opposed the course of socialist construction, when on the basis of the steps taken towards the development of productive forces the issue arose of the complete abolition of capitalist relations and the promotion of Collectivization in agricultural production. This opposition was based on the view that socialist construction in theUSSRpresupposed the victory of socialism in the advanced capitalist west (Trotsky) or on the view that considered the coexistence of socialist and capitalist relations as being something long-term and that the former could overcome the latter through the development of productive forces by using commodity-money relations (Bukharin).

Durante este período (o oportunismo) foi expresso também dentro das fileiras do PC da URSS na forma de Trotskismo e Bukarinismo. Ambas as tendências básicas de “oposição”, que se desenvolveram durante as décadas de 1920 e 1930 dentro PC Russo (bolchevique), absolutizaram (conjuntamente) os elementos de atraso na sociedade soviética e se opuseram ao rumo de construção socialista. Isto aconteceu quando na base dos passos dados em direcção ao desenvolvimento das forças produtivas apareceu o assunto da completa abolição das relações capitalistas e da promoção da Colectivização na produção agrícola. Esta oposição estava baseada na visão que a construção socialista na URSS pressupunha a vitória do socialismo no ocidente capitalista avançado (Trotsky) ou na visão que considerava a coexistência das relações socialistas e capitalistas como sendo de longo-prazo e que as primeiras se sobrepunham às segundas através do desenvolvimento das forças produtivas utilizando relações dinheiro-mercadoria (Bukarine).

The struggle against those or similar theses was not limited to those decades, but it extended throughout the entire period of socialist construction.
In the middle of the war (1943) the CI decided its self – dissolution.

A luta contra estas e e outras teses similares não se limitou a estas décadas, mas estendeu-se pelo inteiro período de construção socialista.
A meio da guerra (1943) a IC (Internacional Comunista) decidiu auto-dissolver-se.

A negative development for the international communist movement was the absence of a centre for the coordinated elaboration of a revolutionary strategy for the transformation of the struggle against imperialist war or foreign occupation into a struggle for state-power, as a common duty concerning every CP in the conditions of its own country.

Um desenvolvimento negativo para movimento comunista internacional foi a ausência de uma centro para a elaboração coordenada de uma estratégia revolucionária para a transformação da luta contra a guerra imperialista ou contra a ocupação estrangeira numa luta pelo poder estatal, como um dever comum que diz respeito a cada PC nas condições do seu próprio país.

Irrespective of the reasons which led to the dissolution of the CI, there is an objective need for the international communist movement to formulate a unified revolutionary strategy, to plan and coordinate its activity against the international imperialist system.

Independentemente das razões que levaram à dissolução da IC, existe uma necessidade objectiva do movimento comunista internacional formular uma estratégia revolucionária unificada, de forma a planear e coordenar as suas actividades contra o sistema imperialista internacional»

« This entire development showed that in countries of Central andEastern Europethe antifascist struggle led to the overthrow of bourgeois power, with the decisive support of the popular movements by the Red Army. However, in the capitalist West, the CP’s did not elaborate a strategy for the transformation of the imperialist war or of the national liberation struggle into a struggle for the conquest of state-power. They appeared deficient in the face of the flexibility of bourgeois class in their own countries to form alliances in order to defend its power (state-power) and to have time to regroup its international alliances. After the war the communist movement had to confront a new situation. In the Essay on the History of KKE, Vol.2, 1949 – 1968, approved by the Nationwide Conference the following assessment is expressed:
“Problems existing in the beginning of 1950s (i.e. overestimation of the correlation of forces in favour of socialism, absence of a unified centre of international communist movement) grew thanks to the domination of the “right” opportunist deviation which was completed at the 20th Congress of CPSU.
[…] The thesis and practice of “peaceful competition between the two socioeconomic systems” caused great ideological – political damage within the Communist Parties and popular movements. Objectively, it prettified capitalism and it strengthened the false view that, at least, for a long historical period of time the two systems could coexist and compete peacefully.
[…] the aforementioned principle, as interpreted and realized mainly by the 20th Congress, was a part of the strategy of the so-called “democratic road to socialism”. Consequently, this was not only a CPSU strategy but also a strategy adopted by many other CPs and above all by the “Eurocommunist” parties.
[…] The underestimation of the forces of imperialism and the mistaken assessment regarding the character of imperialist economic unions, like the European Economic Community (EEC), as well as the overestimation of socialist forces contributed to the lack of awareness of factors and dangers concerning capitalist restoration, not only for the socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe, but even for the USSR as well.
[…] Underestimation was expressed also regarding the unified strategy of capitalism against socialist states and the working class movement within capitalist states, despite the existing and sharpening inter-imperialist contradictions.
[…] Communist Parties of capitalist states did not pose in their Programmes that socialism was timely, so they did not consider it as a strategic aim.»

Fonte: Blog In Defence of Communism


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