Communist Party of Great Britain
Founded in 1920 and dissolved in 1991. Heavily influenced by eurocommunism since the 1970s but long before it had embarked in a opportunist “british road to socialism” and fossilized the outdated tactic of affiliation to the Labour Party.
French Communist Party (PCF)
The French Communist Party (PCF) originated in 1920. One of the major eurocommunist parties. Has been dissolving itself in several social-democratic alliances for many decades. Has given up marxism-leninism, the symbol of hammer and the sickle and democratic centralism.
Italian Communist Party (PCI)
The PCI was founded as Communist Party of Italy on 21 January 1921. One of the major eurocommunist parties. Dissolved in 1991. Became the Democratic Party (of Italy) that has been one of the most reactionay of all italian bourgeois parties and certanly the favourite party of italian capitalists.
Communist Party of Spain (PCE)
The PCE was founded in 1921. It was and still is one of the major eurocommunist parties. Santiago Carrillo wrote essays on the thesis of eurocommunism. Has been dissolving itself in several social-democratic alliances for many decades.
Socialist Unity Party of Germany
Established in April 1946. Dissolved in 1989. It became Die Linke, an opportunist and social-democratic party.
German Communist Party
Founded in 1968. Took part in the European Left Party for some years.
Communist Party of the Netherlands
Founded in 1909 as the Social-Democratic Party. Named Communist Party Holland in 1918. CPH joined the Comintern in 1919. In 1989 the party merged with three other small leftwing parties, namely the Pacifist Socialist Party (PSP), the left-wing Christian Political Party of Radicals (PPR) and the Evangelical People’s Party (EVP) to form the GreenLeft. In 1991, the party officially disbanded.
Communist Party of Belgium (KPB/PCB)
Founded in 1921. Was dissolved in 1989. In 1989 KPB/PCB was divided into two separate parties, Kommunistische Partij in Flanders and Parti Communiste in Wallonia. KP (the Flanders heir of KPB/PCB) was dissolved in 2009. The Parti Communiste in Wallonia was until 2018 a member of the European Left Party. Eurocommunism had a obviously big impact in the KPB/PCB and in its heirs.
Communist Party of Greece
Founded in 1918. In 1968, a crisis escalated between KKE’s two main factions. The crisis was already festering during the 12th plenum of the party’s central committee held in Budapest between 5 and 15 February 1968 in which three members of the politbureau (M. Partsalidis, Z. Zografos and P. Dimitriu) were expelled for fractionist activity and was further triggered by the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia. This event led a number of Greek communists who were ideologically leaning with the so-called opportunist faction to break with KKE that was loyal to the Socialist Republic’s policy and to follow the nascent Eurocommunist line, which favored a more pluralistic approach to socialism. A relatively large group split from KKE, forming what became the Communist Party of Greece (Interior). The spin-off party forged bonds with Eurocommunist parties such as the Italian Communist Party as well as with Nicolae Ceauşescu’s Romanian Communist Party. Its supporters referred to KKE as the KKE (Exterior) (“ΚΚΕ εξωτερικού”), inferring that KKE’s policies were dictated by the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. KKE interior later was the basis of synaspismos and today’s Syriza.
Portuguese Communist Party (PCP)
Founded in 1921. Suffered several eurocommunist splits, one of which that was called Politics XXI became a leading force of the Left Bloc that together with PCP has been supporting a Socialist Party (social-democratic) bourgeois government. It has become an eurocommunist party. It copied the program of the French Communist Party of 1968 called “advanced democracy” that is a theoretical basis of eurocommunism. “Advanced democracy” is the program of PCP since 1988.
Communist Party of Turkey (historical TKP)
Founded in 1920. The TKP merged with the TİP (Workers Party of Turkey) and formed the United Communist Party of Turkey (TBKP) in 1988. Due to the ban on Communist political activities in Turkey, the TBKP initially had to be formed in a clandestine congress, but, from the outset, it stated its aim to operate legally. In 1990, its leaders officially established the TBKP as a formal political party, which would be banned the next year after a lengthy court case. Nevertheless, before it was banned, the TBKP had already held a legal congress in January 1991, and in this congress a resolution was overwhelmingly adopted calling on all its members to join a project to form a broader-based socialist party, the Socialist Unity Party, which would itself eventually evolve, after a series of subsequent mergers, into the Freedom and Solidarity Party (in 1994). It dissolved in the so called “left” in 1991.
Communist Party of Denmark
Was founded on 1919. In 1989, DKP joined with two other left-wing parties, the Left Socialists, and the Trotskyist Socialist Workers Party to form the broad-based Unity List – The Red-Green Alliance (Danish: Enhedslisten – De Rød-Grønne). Gert Petersen, then-Chairman of SF claimed at the time that cooperation between such diffuse ideological currents would fail. Not all members of DKP anticipated the launching of the Unity List either, and some chose to split with the party in 1990 to found a new Communist party, Communist Party in Denmark (KPiD). The Unity List has been a cause of political strife in relation to Danish Communists ever since. There are several issues, the two main ones being dual membership and Communist unity. In 1992, DKP reorganized heavily, severing the party’s links with the international Communist movement and officially changing its purpose from a political organ to a network-oriented organization. At the same time, the Unity List changed from a political cooperation to a regular independent membership-based political party.
Communist Party of Sweden
The party originated as a split from the Swedish Social Democratic Party in 1917, as the Swedish Social Democratic Left Party (Sveriges socialdemokratiska vänsterparti, SSV), and became the Communist Party of Sweden in 1921. In 1967, the party was renamed Left Party – the Communists; it adopted its current name – Left Party – in 1990. In 1964, C.-H. Hermansson was elected party chairman. Hermansson came from an academic background, unlike previous party leaders. Hermansson initiated a change in the political direction of the party towards Eurocommunism and so called Nordic “Popular socialism” (that is social-democracy). The name change towards “left” instead of communist is a distinctive part of its revisionist transformation.
Communist Party of Austria (KPÖ)
The KPÖ was officially established on the 3 November 1918. Became eurocommunist in the 1960s and still is.
Communist Party of Finland (SKP)
In 1918 the Reds lost the Finnish Civil War. The Social Democratic Party of Finland had supported the losing side, and several of its leaders were exiled in the Soviet Russia. Some of these exiles founded the Communist Party of Finland in Moscow. Eurocommunist since the 1960s (condemned the so called “1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia”). The collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s led to ideological conflicts: bitter internal disputes plagued the party. Bad stock-market investments made during Aalto’s term of office resulted in financial bankruptcy in 1992. The SKP never recovered. A majority of the party members, with other member-organizations of SKDL (Finnish People’s Democratic League, sort of popular front), formed the Left Alliance in 1990. The SKP was dissolved in 1992.
Communist Party of Norway
It was formed in 1923. The NKP was broadly considered to be a loyal follower of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, although it occasionally took independent positions opposing the Soviet line. This happened in 1968, when NKP condemned the Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia. After Mikhail Gorbachev gained power in the Soviet Union and started his reform program, NKP, as most other European Communist parties did, started revising its views of past Soviet policies. The party started distancing itself from the practises of the Soviet Union, and focused on a “softer” communism. The term “democratic socialism” is frequently found in party literature from the early 1990s onward.
Communist Party of Ireland (CPI)
Founded in 1933. One notable split from the CPI was the Eurocommunist grouplet the Irish Marxist Society, which left the CPI around 1976. The IMS was founded by Joe Deasy (1922–2013) and other former CPI members. The IMS advocated Marxist feminism and was also outspoken in its rejection of the Two Nations Theory of Northern Ireland. Most of the IMS’s members later joined the Irish Labour Party.
Workers’ Party of Ireland
Founded in 1970 originally known as Official Sinn Féin, changed to Sinn Féin – The Workers’ Party in 1977 and then to the Workers’ Party in 1982. In early 1992, following a failed attempt to change the organisation’s constitution, six of the party’s seven TDs (members of the irish parliament), its MEP, numerous councillors and a significant minority of its membership broke off to form Democratic Left (a social-democratic party), a party which later merged with the Labour Party in 1999.
Communist Party of Luxembourg (KPL)
Founded in 1921. In 1994 suffered a split that formed the a party called the New Left. The New Left formed the alliance The Left including KPL and later KPL exited this alliance. After disputes between leading KPL members and a majority within the Left shortly before the 2004 elections the party again ran separate lists. A number of the Left members were subsequently expelled from the Communist Party.
Communist Party of Iceland
-Was founded in 1930 as a member of the Comintern. Merged with a social-democratic group in 1938 changing its name to Popular Unity Party – Socialist Party, the new party did stayed outside of the Comintern but continued to claim to be communist party. In 1956 the Socialist Party formed the People’s Alliance as an electoral alliance with yet another splinter group from the Social Democratic Party. The People’s Alliance became a political party in 1968 (the People’s Alliance was a completely social-democratic party).